edbuildr
edbuildmapr



Sara Hodges
Director of Data and Visualization



Package builders:
Megan Brodzik, Cecilia Depman, Sara Hodges, Kailey Spencer

Data package: edbuildr

Mapping package: edbuildmapr

EdBuild Data Resources



Master Data

Data Sources

Master codebook

codebook = master_codebook()
Variable.Name Description Data.Source
State State Name F33
STATE_FIPS ANSI/FIPS State Code F33
CONUM County Code F33
NCESID Agency ID - NCES Assigned NCES
Name School System Name F33
ENROLL Fall Membership F33
SLR Total Revenue from State and Local Sources F33/EdBuild
SR Total Revenue from State Sources F33/EdBuild
LR Total Revenue from Local Sources F33/EdBuild
SLRPP Total Revenue from State and Local Sources Per Pupil F33/EdBuild
SRPP Total Revenue from State Sources Per Pupil F33/EdBuild
LRPP Total Revenue from Local Sources Per Pupil F33/EdBuild
SLRPP_cola Total Revenue from State and Local Sources Per Pupil Cost-adjusted F33/C2ER/EdBuild
SRPP_cola Total Revenue from State Sources Per Pupil Cost-adjusted F33/C2ER/EdBuild
LRPP_cola Total Revenue from Local Sources Per Pupil Cost-adjusted F33/C2ER/EdBuild
County County Name NCES
state_id State Agency ID for District NCES
dType Local Educaion Agency Type NCES
dUrbanicity Locale, Urban-Centric NCES
dOperational_schools Total Number Operational Schools NCES
dEnroll_district Total Students, All Grades (Excludes AE) NCES
FRL Free and Reduced Lunch Students NCES
FRL_rate Percent of Free and Reduced Lunch Students NCES/EdBuild
LEP Limited English Proficient (LEP) / English Language Learners (ELL) NCES
IEP Individualized Education Program Students NCES
dWhite White Students NCES
pctNonwhite Nonwhite Enrollment NCES
dBlack Black Students NCES
dHispanic Hispanic Students NCES
dHawaiian_PI Hawaiian Nat./Pacific Isl. Students NCES
dAsian_PI Asian or Asian/Pacific Islander Students NCES
dAmIndian_Aknative American Indian/Alaska Native Students NCES
d2plus_races Two or More Races Students NCES
Tpop Estimated Total Population SAIPE
StPop Estimated Population age 5-17 SAIPE
StPov Estimated number of relevant children 5 to 17 years old in poverty who are related to the householder SAIPE
StPovRate StPov/StPop SAIPE
MHI Median Household Income EDGE, ACS 5-year
MPV Median Owner-Occupied Property Value EDGE, ACS 5-year
sd_area Area (square miles) EdBuild
students_per_sq_mile Students per square mile EdBuild/NCES

Data Processing

Taming the System: Common Data Questions... and Answers!

Why National Data?


Why revenues?

Why not include federal revenue?

Which student count?


How student count impacts equity assessments


library(openxlsx)
library(ggplot2)
library(scales)
library(knitr)


master17 <- masterpull(data_year = "2017", data_type = "geo") 

### this file was downloaded from https://apps.dese.mo.gov/MCDS/home.aspx
### Current Expenditure Per ADA 2009-10 to 2017-18
mo_ada <- read.xlsx("/MO_ADA.xlsx", sheet = "2016-2017") %>% 
  select(District.Code, ADA) %>% 
  mutate(state_id = gsub("-", "", District.Code))

st_louis_county <- master17 %>% 
  right_join(mo_ada, by = "state_id")% 
  filter(CONUM == "29189" | CONUM == "29510") %>% 
  select(NAME, ENROLL, ADA, StPovRate, SR) %>% 
  mutate(`ADA/Enrollment Ratio` = ADA/ENROLL,
         StateRevper_ADA = SR/ADA,
         StateRevper_Enroll = SR/ENROLL,
         `Miscount Per Student` = StateRevper_ADA - StateRevper_Enroll) %>% 
  rename(`Student Poverty Rate` = StPovRate)

st_louis_f <- st_louis_county %>% 
  rename(`School District` = NAME) %>% 
  arrange(desc(`Student Poverty Rate`)) %>% 
  mutate(Enrollment = comma(ENROLL, big.mark = ","),
     ADA = comma(ADA, big.mark = ","),
     `State Revenue Per ADA` = dollar(StateRevper_ADA, accuracy=1, big.mark = ","),
     `State Revenue Per Enrollment` = dollar(StateRevper_Enroll, accuracy=1, big.mark = ","),
     `Miscount of revenue per student` = dollar(`Miscount Per Student`, accuracy=1, big.mark = ","),
     `Student Poverty Rate` = percent(`Student Poverty Rate`, accuracy = 1),
     `ADA/Enrollment Ratio` = percent(`ADA/Enrollment Ratio`, accuracy = 1),
     `State Revenue` = dollar(SR, accuracy=1, big.mark = ",")) %>% 	
  select(`School District`, `Student Poverty Rate`, Enrollment, ADA, `ADA/Enrollment Ratio`, 
     `State Revenue`, `State Revenue Per ADA`, `State Revenue Per Enrollment`, 
     `Miscount of revenue per student`) 

kable(st_louis_f)
School District Student Poverty Rate Enrollment ADA ADA/Enrollment Ratio State Revenue State Revenue Per ADA State Revenue Per Enrollment Miscount of revenue per student
Normandy Schools Collaborative 31% 3,770 3,390 90% $28,116,000 $8,295 $7,458 $837
St. Louis City School District 31% 28,270 21,422 76% $105,949,000 $4,946 $3,748 $1,198
Riverview Gardens School District 31% 5,915 5,235 88% $38,849,000 $7,421 $6,568 $854
Jennings School District 29% 2,570 2,369 92% $17,127,000 $7,229 $6,664 $565
Ferguson-Florissant R-II School District 22% 10,748 9,027 84% $56,426,000 $6,251 $5,250 $1,001
Hancock Place School District 21% 1,283 1,413 110% $9,514,000 $6,732 $7,415 $-684
Ritenour School District 20% 6,485 5,687 88% $33,276,000 $5,851 $5,131 $720
Hazelwood School District 18% 17,952 16,508 92% $90,920,000 $5,508 $5,065 $443
University City School District 14% 2,818 2,443 87% $14,928,000 $6,112 $5,297 $814
Valley Park School District 13% 751 824 110% $2,999,000 $3,638 $3,993 $-356
Pattonville R-III School District 13% 5,793 5,287 91% $24,106,000 $4,559 $4,161 $398
Bayless School District 13% 1,571 1,640 104% $9,077,000 $5,535 $5,778 $-243
Maplewood-Richmond Heights School District 10% 1,366 1,194 87% $5,526,000 $4,628 $4,045 $582
Affton 101 School District 8% 2,474 2,409 97% $8,760,000 $3,636 $3,541 $95
Mehlville R-IX School District 6% 10,140 9,558 94% $36,377,000 $3,806 $3,587 $219
Brentwood School District 5% 676 728 108% $3,553,000 $4,877 $5,256 $-379
Lindbergh School District 4% 6,677 6,116 92% $18,660,000 $3,051 $2,795 $256
Parkway C-2 School District 4% 16,603 16,752 101% $54,630,000 $3,261 $3,290 $-29
Ladue School District 4% 4,063 3,832 94% $16,757,000 $4,373 $4,124 $248
Webster Groves School District 4% 4,518 4,198 93% $18,701,000 $4,455 $4,139 $316
Clayton School District 3% 2,254 2,455 109% $10,987,000 $4,475 $4,874 $-400
Rockwood R-VI School District 3% 19,675 19,852 101% $76,819,000 $3,870 $3,904 $-35
Kirkwood R-VII School District 3% 5,780 5,263 91% $18,844,000 $3,580 $3,260 $320
	
stlouis <- ggplot(st_louis_county, aes(`Student Poverty Rate`, `Miscount Per Student`, color = `Student Poverty Rate`)) +
  geom_point(mapping = aes(size = ENROLL)) + 
  scale_color_gradient(low="#dff3fe", high="#19596d") +
  theme_bw() +
  theme(legend.position="none") 
	
St Louis County, Miscount of State Revenue with ADA

Economically Disadvantaged Count

  • For national comparisons of economic disadvantage, we recommend using the estimated student poverty rate.
  • SAIPE Poverty Rate
  • Proportion of relevant children aged 5-17 that are living in poverty (poverty threshold determined by the size of family)
    • All children that the school district is responsible for, meaning age-relevant for elementary/secondary districts
    • Not enrollment, children may go to private school or not attend school
    • An estimation based on IRS data and ACS 5-year population data
  • Free- and reduced price- lunch (FRL)
  • Proportion of students at or below 185 percent of the poverty threshold, plus some additional non-poor children who meet other eligibility criteria, plus other students in schools and districts that have exercised the Community Eligibility option
    • No longer accurate for many schools and districts because of CEP participation
    • Under the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP), schools and LEAs with a minimum Identified Student Percentage (≥40 percent) in the prior school year are eligible for school or district-wide free lunch and report FRL as 100%.
    • For a deeper look into the impact of CEP on economic disadvantage count, read this working paper.
  • Direct Certification/Identified Student Percentage (ISP)
  • Proportion of students approved for free meals without an application because they either have been identified as low income by another program (such as SNAP, formerly food stamps) or are considered at risk of hunger (because they are homeless or in foster care, for example).
  • State-defined economically disadvantaged count
  • Different definition across states, usually a combination of measures
  • Ohio's definition:
    • Eligible for FRL
    • Direct certification
    • Students whose families are eligible for public assistance via EMAD
    • Through Title 1 form eligibility

How are pensions handled?

Example: Illinois State Report Card- and US Census, F33- reported state revenues.

Illinois State Report Card vs
Census, F33
Illinois State Report Card vs
Census, F33 (w/out state pension payments)

Using edbuildr

library(edbuildr)

Functions

Edbuild standard exclusions

Use the masterpull function to quantify the average school district under each exclusion.


library(scales)
master_fin = masterpull(data_year = "2017", data_type = "fin")

averages_fin <- master_fin %>% 
  summarise(Exclusion = "finance",
             Districts = comma(n()),
            `Average Student Poverty Rate` = percent(mean(StPovRate, na.rm = TRUE), accuracy = 1L),
            `Average Local Rev Per Pupil` = dollar(round(mean(LRPP, na.rm = TRUE), 0)),
            `Average Total Rev Per Pupil` = dollar(round(mean(SLRPP, na.rm = TRUE), 0)))
Average School District Revenues
Exclusion Districts Average Student Poverty Rate Average Local Rev Per Pupil Average Total Rev Per Pupil
finance 13,037 17% $7,308 $14,413
general 13,184 17% $7,439 $14,581
with geography 13,287 17% $7,457 $14,601
all districts 18,381 17% $7,923 $15,633

Neighbor Analysis

This function allows you to find the difference between each pair of school district neighbors and calculate the national rank from largest to smallest.

Use the neigh_diff function to find the school district borders with the largest difference in nonwhite enrollment.

neigh_diff(data_year = "2017", diff_var = "options")
##  [1] "Percent Difference in Local Revenue Per Pupil"                 
	##  [2] "Percent Difference in State Revenue Per Pupil"                 
	##  [3] "Percent Difference in Total Revenue Per Pupil"                 
	##  [4] "Difference in Local Revenue Per Pupil"                         
	##  [5] "Difference in State Revenue Per Pupil"                         
	##  [6] "Difference in Total Revenue Per Pupil"                         
	##  [7] "Percent Difference in Median Household Income"                 
	##  [8] "Percent Difference in Median Property Value"                   
	##  [9] "Difference in Median Household Income"                         
	## [10] "Difference in Median Property Value"                           
	## [11] "Percentage Point Difference in Percent Nonwhite Enrollment"    
	## [12] "Percentage Point Difference in Poverty Rate"                   
	## [13] "Percent Difference in Enrollment, F33"                         
	## [14] "Percent Difference in Local Revenue"                           
	## [15] "Percent Difference in State Revenue"                           
	## [16] "Percent Difference in Total Revenue"                           
	## [17] "Percent Difference in Number of Operational Schools"           
	## [18] "Percent Difference in Enrollment, CCD"                         
	## [19] "Percent Difference in FRL Students"                            
	## [20] "Difference in Percent FRL"                                     
	## [21] "Percent Difference in IEP Students"                            
	## [22] "Percent Difference in LEP Students"                            
	## [23] "Percent Difference in White Enrollment"                        
	## [24] "Percent Difference in Hispanic Enrollment"                     
	## [25] "Percent Difference in Black Enrollment"                        
	## [26] "Percent Difference in Asian Enrollment"                        
	## [27] "Percent Difference in Hawaiian and PI Enrollment"              
	## [28] "Percent Difference in American Indian and AK Native Enrollment"
	## [29] "Percent Difference in Multi-Racial Enrollment"                 
	## [30] "Percent Difference in Total Population"                        
	## [31] "Percent Difference in Student Population"                      
	## [32] "Percent Difference in Students Living in Poverty"              
	## [33] "Percent Difference in District Area"                           
	## [34] "Percent Difference in Students Per Square Mile"
## Please see above for variables you can use to rank neighbors.

see elementary and secondary districts
nabes <- neigh_diff(data_year = "2017", diff_var = "Percentage Point Difference in Percent Nonwhite Enrollment", type = "like")

	head(nabes)
top10_pnw_nabes <- nabes %>% 
	  filter(`District Enrollment, CCD` > 1000) %>% 
	  select(`Rank_Percentage Point Difference in Percent Nonwhite Enrollment`:`Percentage Point Difference in Percent Nonwhite Enrollment`,`District Percent Nonwhite`, `District Enrollment, CCD`, `Neighbor Enrollment, CCD`) %>% 
	  slice(1:10) %>% 
	  mutate(`Percentage Point Difference in Percent Nonwhite Enrollment` = round2(`Percentage Point Difference in Percent Nonwhite Enrollment`, 2),
	         `District Percent Nonwhite` = percent(`District Percent Nonwhite`, accuracy = 1L),
	         `District Enrollment, CCD` = comma(`District Enrollment, CCD`),
	         `Neighbor Enrollment, CCD` = comma(`Neighbor Enrollment, CCD`))

	kable(top10_pnw_nabes)
Rank - Percentage Point Difference in Percent Nonwhite Enrollment State District Name Neighbor Name Percentage Point Difference in Percent Nonwhite Enrollment District Percent Nonwhite District Enrollment, CCD Neighbor Enrollment, CCD
7 Alabama Birmingham City School District Mountain Brook Schools 0.95 99% 24,070 4,343
16 Michigan Detroit Public Schools Community District Dearborn City School District 0.91 98% 45,455 20,674
18 Arkansas Pine Bluff Sch Dist 3 Woodlawn Sch Dist 6 0.91 99% 4,070 578
27 Ohio Trotwood-Madison City School Dist Brookville Sch Dist 0.89 94% 2,581 1,415
28 Alabama Birmingham City School District Walker County School District 0.89 99% 24,070 7,723
29 Montana Browning Elem Sch Dist 9 West Glacier Elem Sch Dist 8 0.89 96% 1,462 67
30 Ohio Trotwood-Madison City School Dist New Lebanon Sch Dist 0.89 94% 2,581 1,163
35 Mississippi Aberdeen School District Monroe County School District 0.88 97% 1,298 2,358
37 New York Amityville Uf Sch Dist Massapequa Uf Sch Dist 23 0.88 95% 3,150 7,083
39 New York Uniondale Uf Sch Dist Garden City u f Sch Dist 0.87 99% 7,152 3,850
bham_neighb <- sd_neighbor_xlsx(school_district = "0100390", table_vars = "options")
## Use one or more of the following variables to generate a table:
	table_vars = c('Name', 'County', 'Enrollment', 'Poverty Rate', 'Percent Nonwhite', 'Percent FRL',
	'Local Revenue PP', 'State Revenue PP', 'Total Revenue PP', 'Median Property Value', 
	'Median Household Income', 'Type')
bham_neighb <- sd_neighbor_xlsx(data_year = "2017", school_district = "0100390", table_vars = c('Name', 'Enrollment', 'Poverty Rate', 'Percent Nonwhite', 'Median Household Income', 'Total Revenue PP', 'Local Revenue PP'))
## NOTE:: save your workbook to the desired location using:
	openxlsx::saveWorkbook(my_table, file =  '~/Documents/neighbor_table.xlsx', overwrite = TRUE)

Data Questions

edbuildmapr

Common School District Mapping Questions

What years are school district shapes available?

  • Shapefiles come out every two years.
  • Back to 1995 (to be used with data for 1989-90 school year).

What's with elementary and secondary districts?

  • Most school districts are unified, meaning they educate students of all age and grade levels.
  • Twenty-seven (27) states have elementary/secondary districts in addition to unified
  • see elementary and secondary districts

master_shp <- sd_shapepull()

sdType <- as.data.frame(master_shp) %>% 
select(-geometry) %>% 
group_by(sdType) %>% 
summarise(districts = n())
	
sdType districts
unified 10,865
elementary 1,958
secondary 486

Using edbuildmapr

library(edbuildmapr)

Functions

  • Importing data
    • sd_shapepull
  • Analysis
    • borders
  • Formatted Maps
    • sd_map
    • sd_neighbor_map

Import shape data

sd17 <- sd_shapepull(data_year = "2017", with_data = TRUE)
## Reading layer `shapefile_1718_4269' from data source `/private/var/folders/vz/s7f1ncg12xb6v27z2vzntqjc0000gp/T/RtmpUFwceV/file9c9d5288f72/shapefile_1718_4269.shp' using driver `ESRI Shapefile'
## Simple feature collection with 13330 features and 6 fields
## geometry type:  MULTIPOLYGON
## dimension:      XY
## bbox:           xmin: -179.1686 ymin: 18.91382 xmax: 179.7487 ymax: 71.38881
## epsg (SRID):    4269
## proj4string:    +proj=longlat +ellps=GRS80 +towgs84=0,0,0,0,0,0,0 +no_defs
head(sd17)

Vignette

Mapping in r

ct <- sd17 %>% 
  filter(State == "Connecticut") %>% 
  select(urb, StPovRate, LRPP) 

plot(ct, border="light gray", lwd=0.5)